This summer was the hottest on record in England, and the joint-hottest in the UK, according to the UK Met Office.
The average temperature in England from June to August 2018 was 17.2 degrees Celsius (63 degrees Fahrenheit), beating the previous record set in 1976 by 0.2 degrees.
Across the UK — England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — the average temperature was 15.8 degrees Celsius (60 degrees Fahrenheit), matching previous records set in 2006, 2003 and 1976.
According to the Met Office, a longer term perspective suggests this year is not an anomaly, but another sign of a warming global climate.
An average temperature above 17 degrees Celsius has only been recorded 10 times since 1659 and six of those have occurred since 1976, the Met Office said.
In July, the Environmental Audit Committee — a cross-party panel of UK lawmakers — warned that the risk of heatwaves was growing and that Britain was unprepared for periods of extreme heat.
Data released in July by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) showed 2018 on pace to be the fourth hottest year on record.